Bill Downs is an expert on diet and digestion.
Bill has unsurpassed knowledge of how nutrients help the body heal.
Involved with nutritional information for over 20 years, Bill has lectured
worldwide, is a published author, and has penned a number of papers in cited
peer-reviewed scientific journals. A recognized expert in his field , Bill has had over 75 TV , Radio and Newspaper interviews.
Bill's five years of post-graduate education in Nutrition Science and Biological Chemistry along with his years of clinical experience as a nutrition consultant
have given him great insight into the modern
human condition, the needless suffering of people, and a profound appreciation
for the body's miraculous capabilities to heal itself when properly supported by
In The News
World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
states; probiotics are
"live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host".
"In conclusion, probiotics act as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic diseases"
(from a paper presented by Broekaert and Walker of Harvard Medical School , Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children
Elderly people should take probiotic supplements, according to scientists.
Between thirty and fifty million Americans are lactose intolerant, meaning their bodies don’t produce enough lactase, the enzyme needed
to digest lactose, the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products.
Certain ethnic and racial populations are more affected with lactose intolerance than others. Up to 80 percent of African Americans, 80 to 100 percent of American Indians, and 90 to 100 percent of Asian Americans are lactose intolerant. Lactose intolerance is least common among people of northern European descent. In addition some 7.5 million Americans suffer from severe lactose intolerance.
Common symptoms of lactose
intolerance include nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea, which may begin about 30 minutes to 2 hours
after eating or drinking foods that contain lactose.
Because of the probiotic bacteria they contain, fermented
milk products, such as yogurt, can help decrease the symptoms of lactose intolerance. When present as live and
active bacterial cultures in yogurt, probiotics reduce lactose content by “predigesting” some of the lactose (milk sugar),
metabolizing it to lactic acid. The probiotic bacteria in yogurt that survive the trip to the intestinal tract also
provide additional lactase enzyme activity.
(Montalto et al., 2006)
(de Vrese et al., 2001)
(Savaiano et al., 1989)
(Scrimshaw et al., 1988)
(Alternative Medicine Review, 2002)
Below are abstracts of referenced clinical studies from the PubMed site , a service of the Unite States National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Health.
Management and Treatment of Lactose Malabsorption
Montalto M, Curigliano V, Santoro L, Vastola M, Cammarota G, Manna R, Gasbarrini A, Gasbarrini G.
Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University, Rome, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world's population, while secondary hypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen causes gastrointestinal symptoms. The condition is known as lactose intolerance. In patients with lactase nonpersistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous beta-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, pharmacological and non pharmacological strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation. In this review the usefulness of these approaches is discussed and a therapeutic management with a flow chart is proposed.
Probiotics - Compensation for Lactase Insufficiency
de Vrese M, Stegelmann A, Richter B, Fenselau S, Laue C, Schrezenmeir J.
Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Federal Dairy Research Center, Hermann-Weigmann-Strasse 1, D-24103 Kiel, Germany. email@example.com
Yogurt and other conventional starter cultures and probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products improve lactose digestion and eliminate symptoms of intolerance in lactose maldigesters. These beneficial effects are due to microbial beta-galactosidase in the (fermented) milk product, delayed gastrointestinal transit, positive effects on intestinal functions and colonic microflora, and reduced sensitivity to symptoms. Intact bacterial cell walls, which act as a mechanical protection of lactase during gastric transit, and the release of the enzyme into the small intestine are determinants of efficiency. There is a poor correlation between lactose maldigestion and intolerance; in some studies, low hydrogen exhalation without significant improvement of clinical symptoms was observed. Probiotic bacteria, which by definition target the colon, normally promote lactose digestion in the small intestine less efficiently than do yogurt cultures. They may, however, alleviate clinical symptoms brought about by undigested lactose or other reasons.
Recent Advances in the Management of Lactose Intolerance
Savaiano DA, Kotz C.
Lactose intolerance is a concern for the majority of the world's population. Persons who experience symptoms following the consumption of milk should consult with their physician. Symptoms may be eliminated or reduced with good dietary management that includes: 1. limiting milk consumption to one glass at a time; 2. drinking milk with other foods rather than alone; 3. eating yogurts instead of fluid milk; 4. using enzyme tablets to predigest the lactose in milk or to supplement the body's own lactase; 5. possibly eating small amounts of dairy foods each day to adapt the colonic bacteria. For an additional review of the research findings on lactose intolerance and milk drinking, the reader is directed to reference 4, a very recent and complete review by Scrimshaw and Murray. For information on dietary management of lactose intolerance suitable for the consumer, contact your local affiliate of the National Dairy Council.
Lactose Tolerance and Milk Consumption: Myths and Realities
Scrimshaw NS, Murray E.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139.
The disaccharide lactose, the principal carbohydrate of animal milks, requires the enzyme lactase to split it to glucose and galactose. Undigested lactose passes to the colon where fermentation produces hydrogen and short-chain fatty acids that can cause abdominal distention, pain and sometimes diarrhea. Persistence of intestinal lactase after early childhood, is inherited as a highly-penetrant autosomal dominant genetic characteristic. On the basis of a review of over 560 references, all available data on the primary loss of intestinal lactase in Latin American populations are presented in tabular form. Prevalence of lactose non-digesters in Latin American populations ranges from 45% to 100%. However, this is not a reliable predictor of the acceptability of milk and milk products containing lactose. Milk is being used successfully for the supplementary feeding of children worldwide, and most lactose non-digesters can tolerate at least 240 ml of milk or the lactose equivalent in other products. Lactose maldigestion does not interfere with the absorption of the protein and essential micronutrients in milk. Information is provided on the lactose content of milk and milk products, on the usual milk consumption of Latin American populations, and on worldwide experimental and field observations of milk acceptability. Both adaptation to continued use of milk and milk products and relationships of milk use to various disease states in which intestinal lactase activity may be reduced are discussed. Some types of yoghurts are better tolerated because of the lactase activity of the bacteria used in their fermentation. For unusually intolerant individuals commercial enzyme preparations are available for addition to milk products but for most persons the additional cost is unnecessary.
Alternative Medicine Review August 7,2002
Lactobacillus sporogenes is a gram-positive, spore-forming, lactic-acid producing bacillus. It was originally isolated and described in 1933. The organism requires a complex mixture of organic substrates for growth, including fermentable carbohydrates and peptides.
Subsequent to oral administration, L. sporogenes passes through the stomach in its spore form and upon arrival in the duodenum, germinates and multiplies rapidly.
Estimates suggest the average duration of time between oral dosing and germination is four hours. After germination, L. sporogenes is metabolically active in the intestines, producing lactic acid.
L sporogenes is considered a semi-resident, indicating it takes up only a temporary residence in the human intestines. Spores of L. sporogenes are excreted slowly via the feces for approximately seven days after discontinuation of administration.
Mechanisms of Action
Despite the transient nature of this organism in the digestive tract, the changes this lactic acid bacillus produces shift the environment in support of a complex gastrointestinal flora.
The mechanism of action is presumed to be a result of improving gastrointestinal ecology by replenishing the quantity of desirable obligate microorganisms and antagonizing pathogenic microbes.
Two isomeric forms of lactic acid can be produced by lactic acid-producing bacteria--dextrorotatory (D (-)) lactic acid and levorotatory (L(+)) lactic acid. L(+) lactic acid is completely metabolized in the body; however, D(-) lactic acid is not completely metabolized, resulting in a degree of metabolic acidosis. L. sporogenes produces only L(+) lactic acid.
L. sporogenes is assumed to produce bacteriocins and short chain fatty acids. As the organism grows, it assimilates and incorporates cholesterol into its cellular structure.
L. sporogenes possesses significant [beta]-galactosidase (lactase) activity in vitro.
Administration of L sporogenes to rabbits resulted in a 90-percent inhibition in the rise of serum cholesterol secondary to feeding of high cholesterol diets.
Oral L. sporogenes supplementation (360 million spores/day) decreased total serum cholesterol from an average of 330 mg/dL to 226 mg/dL in 17 subjects with type II hyperlipidemia over a three-month time interval. HDL-cholesterol increased slightly. No changes in serum triglyceride levels were observed.
In laboratory animals with bacterial dysbiosis, L. sporogenes supplementation inhibits growth of pathogenic microorganisms and results in renewal of desirable obligate gastrointestinal organisms to normal levels. Reports suggest that supplementation produces a rapid resolution of acute gastrointestinal infection induced by pathogenic bacteria in calves)
It has been reported that the efficacy of treatment in patients with bacterial dysbiosis receiving L sporogenes was 20-30 percent higher than traditional probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus of Bifidobacteria.
Seventy percent of individuals suffering from chronic constipation treated with 300-750 million spores per day of L. sporogenes for two to 10 days experienced an amelioration of abdominal distention and a normalization of stools.
Reports suggest a benefit in neonatal diarrhea.
Reports suggest efficacy in the treatment of aphthous stomatitis with resolution occurring within two to three days.
Vaginal administration of L. sporogenes was investigated in non-specific vaginitis. Subjects with Trichomonas or Candida vaginitis were excluded from the study. Complete relief of pruritis and discharge was reported by 93 percent of subjects. Postmenopausal subjects had a slower response to therapy.
Toxicity and Side Effects
Acute toxicity studies in animals have been conducted with doses as high as 50 g/kg for seven days. No abnormalities, either during supplementation or in the period after withdrawal of the supplement, were observed. Chronic supplementation of doses as high as 5 g/kg for 15 months in animals results in no observed toxicity. In humans, adverse reactions following supplementation have not been reported.
A reasonable dose is 100 mg two to three times daily. Each 100 mg contains approximately 1.5 billion colony-forming units.
Did You Know?
You carry around three pounds of bacteria (both "good" and "bad" types) in your intestines every day of your life.?
There are about 400 different species of bacteria residing in your digestive tract?
That these bacterium number in the trillions?
That PROBIOTICS (good bacterium) are an INTREGAL part of your digestive system and are ESSENTIAL for good health?
That the ratio of good bacteria to bad in a HEALTHY gastrointestinal tract is 85 percent versus 15 percent, respectively?
People over 60 have about 1,000-fold LESS "friendly" bacteria in their guts compared with other adults
That your diet, prescription drugs (especially antibiotics), stress, and illnesses, can kill your essential good bacteria?
That enzymes are present in every cell of your body?
That enzymes are NECESSARY to your food digestion, energy production, tissue and organ repair, and toxic waste removal?
That due to a nutrient depleted diet , most Americans lack sufficient types and quanities of CRITICAL to health levels of both enzymes and probiotics?
That Trafon OneAmeal™ contains the hightest premium quality strains of HEALTH promoting probiotics and enzymes CRITICALLY required by your body?