Bill Downs is an expert on diet and digestion.
Bill has unsurpassed knowledge of how nutrients help the body heal.
Involved with nutritional information for over 20 years, Bill has lectured
worldwide, is a published author, and has penned a number of papers in cited
peer-reviewed scientific journals. A recognized expert in his field , Bill has had over 75 TV , Radio and Newspaper interviews.
Bill's five years of post-graduate education in Nutrition Science and Biological Chemistry along with his years of clinical experience as a nutrition consultant
have given him great insight into the modern
human condition, the needless suffering of people, and a profound appreciation
for the body's miraculous capabilities to heal itself when properly supported by
In The News
World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
states; probiotics are
"live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host".
"In conclusion, probiotics act as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic diseases"
(from a paper presented by Broekaert and Walker of Harvard Medical School , Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children
Elderly people should take probiotic supplements, according to scientists.
Immune Function and Your Body's Natural Defense Systems
Your body has its own natural defense mechanisms against invading bacteria, viruses, and other aggressions.
A major component of your body's defense system is the immune function system.
While you may be familiar with some aspects of your body's disease fighting capabilities, most people are surprised to find
out that approximately 70% of their body's immune system is located in the digestive tract. It is here , in your
gastrointestinal tract , that
specialized cells , such as antibodies and natural killer cells ,
play a vital role as a first line of defense against invading bacteria and other aggressions.
In addition the microflora in the lining of your intestinal tract also act as a physical barrier.
Regular consumption of probiotics helps regulate the level of friendly bacteria,
reinforcing this barrier and helping to maintain intestinal health.
An essential part of the immune system, called the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue or GALT,
consists of several types of lymphoid tissue that produce and store immune cells.
Some research also suggests that probiotics have a beneficial action on the intestinal microflora,
improving the functioning of the intestinal lining while helping to regulate critical components of the immune system
such as lymphocytes, antibodies and natural killer cells following probiotic-mediated signaling in the
gut (Parra et al., 2004;
Marcos et al., 2004;
Yasui et al., 2003; Cross, 2004).
Daily usage of Trafon OneAmeal ™ will
not only help in the regulation of the level of friendly bacteria in your digestive tract , but will also help alleviate
enviromental and dietary insults that aggitate the intestinal lining and specialized cells of your immune system , allowing them to first heal , then
remain healthy so that they can more readily perform their disease-fighting functions.
Below are abstracts of referenced clinical studies from the PubMed site , a service of the Unite States National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Health.
Monocyte Function in Healthy Middle-Aged People Receiving Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus Casei.
Parra D, De Morentin BM, Cobo JM, Mateos A, Martinez JA.
Department of Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra (Edif. Investigacion), C/ Irunlarrea, s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria have been suggested as a dietary strategy to enhance immune system activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current work was to test the effects of a Lactobacillus casei fermented milk consumption on monocyte activity of middle-aged volunteers. DESIGN: Forty-five healthy volunteers, 24 women and 21 men (aged: 51 - 58 years), were randomized in two groups to receive three cups per day of a fermented milk containing L. casei DN114001 (108 - 1010/g) (n = 23), or placebo (n = 22), during 8 weeks. White blood cell count and the oxidative burst capacity of monocytes and granulocytes were examined with a FACScalibur. Measurements were performed at baseline and after the nutritional intervention, at day fifty-six. RESULTS: After the trial, no changes in immune cell proportions were detected in both groups, as well as in monocyte activity after the placebo consumption (p = 0.625). However, volunteers included in the probiotic-treated group increased (p = 0.029) their oxidative burst capacity of monocytes, and this increment inversely and significantly correlated with the intensity registered at baseline (r = -0.653, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that daily intake of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei was able to module the oxidative burst capacity of monocyte subset in healthy middle-aged people, particularly in subjects with lower initial levels. Thus, this nutritional strategy could be considered to maintain immune competence in ageing.
The Effect of Milk Fermented by Yogurt Cultures Plus Lactobacillus Casei DN-114001 on the Immune Response of Subjects Under Academic Examination Stress.
Marcos A, Warnberg J, Nova E, Gomez S, Alvarez A, Alvarez R, Mateos JA, Cobo JM.
Grupo Inmunonutricion, Depo. de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Instituto del Frio, CSIC, C/Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: A suppressed immune response has been documented in students under examination stress. AIMS: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of milk fermented with yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (Actimel) on the immune system of subjects under academic examination stress. METHODS: University students were allocated to one of two groups, receiving during 6 weeks (3 weeks prior to, as well as the 3-week duration of the examination period) either: a) a glass of semi-skimmed milk each day (control group, n=63) or b) two 100mL portions per day of fermented milk (treatment group, n=73). Anxiety and immunological measurements were monitored at baseline (Phase 0) and study end (Phase 1).
RESULTS: The results were expressed as the differences between the data obtained from Phase 0 and Phase 1. This was calculated by subtracting Phase 1 results from the Phase 0 and it is denominated "Treatment effect".
Mean (+/- SE) anxiety increased significantly (P < 0.05) over the 6-week study in all students, from 40.74+/-2.50 to 61.19+/-2.64 (in percentiles). There was no significant treatment effect since this increase was similar in the control and the treatment groups (21.65+/-5.09 vs 19.14+/-3.67, respectively). However, there was a significant treatment effect (P<0.05) on the mean change in absolute number of lymphocytes during the 6-week study, which decreased in the control group (-0.04+/-0.12 cells x 10(3)/mm(3)) and increased in the treatment group (0.37+/-0.11 cells x 10(3)/mm(3)). There was also a significant treatment effect (P<0.05) on the change in absolute numbers of CD56 cells during the 6-week study. Mean absolute CD56 cells significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the control group (-51.97+/-21.33 cells/mm(3)),while remaining similar in the treatment group (17.29+/-17.27 cells/mm(3)). During the study, mean serum cortisol increased 4.30+/-0.98 microg/dL in the control group, and 1.75+/-1.05 microg/dL in the treatment group and no significant differences were found between both values (P=0.062). CONCLUSIONS: Milk fermented with yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 was able to modulate the number of lymphocytes and CD56 cells in subjects under academic examination stress.
Reduction of Influenza Virus Titer and Protection Against Influenza Virus Infection in Infant Mice Fed Lactobacillus Casei Shirota
Yasui H, Kiyoshima J, Hori T.
Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered L. casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota group) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in infant mice administered saline (control group) (10(2.48) +/- 10(0.31) and 10(2.78) +/- 10(0.4), respectively). Further, the survival rate of the L. casei Shirota group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control group (14.3 versus 40.0%). One day after infection, pulmonary NK cell activity and interleukin-12 production by mediastinal lymph node cells of mice in the L. casei Shirota group were significantly greater than those of mice in the control group. These findings suggest that oral administration of L. casei Shirota activates the immature immune system of neonatal and infant mice and protects against IFV infection. Therefore, oral administration of L. casei Shirota may accelerate the innate immune response of the respiratory tract and protect against various respiratory infections in neonates, infants, and children, a high risk group for viral and bacterial infections.
Immune-Signalling by Orally-Delivered Probiotic Bacteria: Effects on Common Mucosal Immunoresponses and Protection at Distal Mucosal Sites
Human Nutrition and Health Research group, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. M.L.Cross@massey.ac.nz
Probiotics--orally-delivered preparations of non-pathogenic bacterial cells--have been reported to increase anti-microbial protection in the gastrointestinal tract environment, and offer a safe and effective non-pharmaceutical means for combating infectious diseases and certain other pathologies. There is also an increasing body of evidence to suggest that immunostimulation by probiotic bacteria in the gut can enhance immune protection at distal mucosal sites, such as the urogenital and respiratory tracts. This review summarises the current information, from both clinical and animal model studies, of a role for orally-delivered probiotics in modulating mucosal immunoresponses and protection at distal sites. While it is clear that probiotics hold promise in this area, research that is targeted toward identifying the mechanism driving stimulation of the common mucosal immune system, as well as patterns of mucosal tissue homing by immunocytes following probiotic-mediated signalling in the gut, is strongly encouraged.
Did You Know?
You carry around three pounds of bacteria (both "good" and "bad" types) in your intestines every day of your life.?
There are about 400 different species of bacteria residing in your digestive tract?
That these bacterium number in the trillions?
That PROBIOTICS (good bacterium) are an INTREGAL part of your digestive system and are ESSENTIAL for good health?
That the ratio of good bacteria to bad in a HEALTHY gastrointestinal tract is 85 percent versus 15 percent, respectively?
People over 60 have about 1,000-fold LESS "friendly" bacteria in their guts compared with other adults
That your diet, prescription drugs (especially antibiotics), stress, and illnesses, can kill your essential good bacteria?
That enzymes are present in every cell of your body?
That enzymes are NECESSARY to your food digestion, energy production, tissue and organ repair, and toxic waste removal?
That due to a nutrient depleted diet , most Americans lack sufficient types and quanities of CRITICAL to health levels of both enzymes and probiotics?
That Trafon OneAmeal™ contains the hightest premium quality strains of HEALTH promoting probiotics and enzymes CRITICALLY required by your body?