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Bill Downs
Bill Downs is an expert on diet and digestion.
Bill is the author of the Trafon (spell it backwards) blog

Bill has unsurpassed knowledge of how nutrients help the body heal. Involved with nutritional information for over 20 years, Bill has lectured worldwide, is a published author, and has penned a number of papers in cited peer-reviewed scientific journals. A recognized expert in his field , Bill has had over 75 TV , Radio and Newspaper interviews. Bill's five years of post-graduate education in Nutrition Science and Biological Chemistry along with his years of clinical experience as a nutrition consultant have given him great insight into the modern human condition, the needless suffering of people, and a profound appreciation for the body's miraculous capabilities to heal itself when properly supported by nutrition.

In The News

World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states; probiotics are "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host".

"In conclusion, probiotics act as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic diseases" (from a paper presented by Broekaert and Walker of Harvard Medical School , Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children

Elderly people should take probiotic supplements, according to scientists.

One a Meal

The dramatic increase in the United States over the past 40 years of allergic diseases, atopic diseases, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, eczema (Boyle et al., 2006) , food allergies (Vanderhoof et al., 2003) and asthma has been described as reaching epidemic proportions (Isolauri, 2004). The incidence of asthma alone has doubled in the last 25 years. (this increase coincides with our dietary shift) There is abundant research evidence to suggest that certain probiotics strains have an effect on the mucosal barrier function of the digestive tract, which in turn affects allergens entering the body and the activity of the inflammation producing cells as demonstrated by the reduction of certain local and systemic immune markers (Isolauri, 2004; Miraglia del Giudice et al., 2004). Impairment of the intestinal mucosal barrier appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (Rosenfeldt et al., 2003). Research suggests that probiotic supplementation may affect the intestinal barrier function in children with this condition. One study performed on rats , explored the effect of daily oral administration of fermented milk containing L. casei or L. casei alone in skin inflammation caused by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, a model of allergic contact dermatitis (Chapat et al., 2004). Another double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, in which two probiotic Lactobacillus strains were given in combination for 6 weeks to 1-to 13-year-old children with atopic dermatitis, explored specifically the effect of this probiotic mix in children with this condition (Rosenfeldt et al., 2003). Probiotics may affect the production of inflammation-producing cells and accessibility of allergens, normalize gut microflora and impact gut barrier function, regulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators and help promote the proper development of the immune system in certain subjects (Isolauri, 2004).

Clinical Studies
Below are abstracts of referenced clinical studies from the PubMed site , a service of the Unite States National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Health.

Dietary Modification of Atopic Disease: Use of Probiotics in the Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis

Isolauri E.
Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Central Hospital, Finland. erika.isolauri@utu.fi

The increased prevalence of atopic diseases, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma has been described as an epidemic. New approaches in the fight against allergic diseases are called for, the target being the persistence of the atopic T helper 2-skewed immune responder pattern beyond infancy. Atopic dermatitis, the earliest of these conditions, might act as a portal for the development of IgE-mediated atopic manifestations. Abundant evidence implies that specific strains selected from the healthy gut microbiota exhibit powerful antipathogenic and anti-inflammatory capabilities, and several targets for the probiotic approach have emerged in atopic dermatitis: degradation/structural modification of enteral antigens, normalization of the properties of aberrant indigenous microbiota and of gut barrier functions, regulation of the secretion of inflammatory mediators, and promotion of the development of the immune system. Better understanding of the effects of different probiotic strains and deeper insight into the mechanisms of the heterogeneous manifestations of atopic disease are needed for the validation of specific strains carrying anti-allergic potential.

The Role of Probiotics in the Clinical Management of Food Allergy and Atopic Dermatitis

Miraglia del Giudice M, De Luca MG.
Dipartimento di Pediatria, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Italy. michele.miraglia@unina2.it

The probiotics are cultures of potentially beneficial bacteria that positively affects host by enhancing the microbial balance and therefore restore the normal intestinal permeability and gut microecology, improve the intestine's immunologic barrier function and reduce the generation of proinflammatory cycochines characteristics of allergic inflammation. The authors made a survey of the most relevant studies concerning the use of probiotics in the food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and in primary prevention of atopy. On the basis of these trials probiotic therapy alleviates allergic inflammation as demonstrated by the control of clinical symptoms and the reduction of local and systemic inflammatory markers.

Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, Michaelsen KF, Jeppesen DL, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A.
Research Department of Human Nutrition and the LMC Center for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460) were given in combination for 6 weeks to 1- to 13-year-old children with AD. The patients' evaluations were registered after each intervention (ie, better, unchanged, or worse). The clinical severity of the eczema was evaluated by using the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) score. As inflammatory markers, eosinophil cationic protein in serum and cytokine production by PBMCs were measured. RESULTS: After active treatment, 56% of the patients experienced improvement of the eczema, whereas only 15% believed their symptoms had improved after placebo (P =.001). The total SCORAD index, however, did not change significantly. The extent of the eczema decreased during active treatment from a mean of 18.2% to 13.7% (P =.02). The treatment response was more pronounced in allergic patients (at least one positive skin prick test response and elevated IgE levels), and in this group the SCORAD score decreased (P =.02 compared with nonallergic patients). During active treatment, serum eosinophil cationic protein levels decreased (P =.03). No significant changes in the production of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, or IFN-gamma were found. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of L rhamnosus 19070-2 and L reuteri DSM 122460 was beneficial in the management of AD. The effect was more pronounced in patients with a positive skin prick test response and increased IgE levels.

Lactobacillus Casei Reduces CD8+ T Cell Mediated Skin Inflammation

Chapat L, Chemin K, Dubois B, Bourdet-Sicard R, Kaiserlian D.
Inserm-U404 "Immunite et Vaccination", CERVI, IFR-128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, Lyon, France.

Probiotics, including Lactobacilli, have been postulated to alleviate allergic and inflammatory diseases, but evidence that they exert an anti-inflammatory effect by immune modulation of pathogenic T cell effectors is still lacking. The aim of this study was to examine whether L. casei could affect antigen-specific T cell-mediated skin inflammation. To this end, we used contact hypersensitivity to the hapten 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, a model of allergic contact dermatitis mediated by CD8+ CTL and controlled by CD4+ regulatory T cells. Daily oral administration of fermented milk containing L. casei or L. casei alone decreased skin inflammation by inhibiting the priming/expansion of hapten-specific IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ effector T cells. The down-regulatory effect of the probiotics required the presence of CD4+ T cells, which control the size of the hapten-specific CD8+ T cell pool primed by skin sensitization. L. casei cell wall was as efficient as live L. casei to regulate both the CHS response and the hapten-specific CD8+ T cell response, suggesting that cell wall components contribute to the immunomodulatory effect of L. casei. This study provides the first evidence that oral administration of L. casei can reduce antigen-specific skin inflammation by controlling the size of the CD8+ effector pool. Copyright 2004 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

The Role of Probiotics in the Management of Allergic Disease

Boyle RJ, Tang ML.
Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, Vic., Australia.

Probiotics have recently been advocated for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease (AD). In clinical practice they are increasingly being used for these purposes. Here we review the evidence base for the use of probiotics in the management of AD. We find support for their use in the treatment of childhood eczema, but the clinical significance of any treatment effect is uncertain. There is also evidence to support the use of probiotics in the prevention of childhood eczema. However the available evidence suggests that probiotics are not an effective treatment for allergic airway diseases. Probiotics may be more effective when used early in life, and they may have a particular role in gastrointestinal AD. The relative efficacy of different probiotic strains in the management of AD is not well established, and further work is needed to establish their mechanisms of action. In summary probiotics are likely to play a part in the management of childhood eczema in the future, and further studies are warranted to precisely define their role. Return

Role of Probiotics in the Management of Patients With Food Allergy

Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ.
University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-5160, USA. jvanderh@unmc.edu

OBJECTIVE: This review will concentrate on the potential use of probiotics in treating or preventing allergic disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract. In small infants, most reactions to foods are manifested in the gastro-intestinal tract. As children get older, cutaneous and even systemic or respiratory manifestations of food intolerances may be more common. In most instances, allergic disorders in the gut cause inflammation in the mucosa. DATA SOURCES: Recently, the role of gut microflora in allergic disease has gained increasing interest with reports of probiotics being used to treat food allergy. STUDY SELECTION: Pertinent scientific reports on the role of probiotics in the management of patients with food allergy will be reviewed. A recent study to determine the effect of very early probiotic colonization will be extensively reviewed as it presents an intriguing concept of a preventive strategy related to food allergy development RESULTS: Significant improvement has been noted in infants receiving Lactobacillus GG in their extensively hydrolyzed formula. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely more studies will be forthcoming with different probiotic organisms in the prevention and treatment of allergic disorders in children and adults. Return

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Did You Know?

You carry around three pounds of bacteria (both "good" and "bad" types) in your intestines every day of your life.?

There are about 400 different species of bacteria residing in your digestive tract?

That these bacterium number in the trillions?

That PROBIOTICS (good bacterium) are an INTREGAL part of your digestive system and are ESSENTIAL for good health?

That the ratio of good bacteria to bad in a HEALTHY gastrointestinal tract is 85 percent versus 15 percent, respectively?

People over 60 have about 1,000-fold LESS "friendly" bacteria in their guts compared with other adults

That your diet, prescription drugs (especially antibiotics), stress, and illnesses, can kill your essential good bacteria?

That enzymes are present in every cell of your body?

That enzymes are NECESSARY to your food digestion, energy production, tissue and organ repair, and toxic waste removal?

That due to a nutrient depleted diet , most Americans lack sufficient types and quanities of CRITICAL to health levels of both enzymes and probiotics?

That Trafon OneAmeal™ contains the hightest premium quality strains of HEALTH promoting probiotics and enzymes CRITICALLY required by your body?
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