Bill Downs is an expert on diet and digestion.
Bill has unsurpassed knowledge of how nutrients help the body heal.
Involved with nutritional information for over 20 years, Bill has lectured
worldwide, is a published author, and has penned a number of papers in cited
peer-reviewed scientific journals. A recognized expert in his field , Bill has had over 75 TV , Radio and Newspaper interviews.
Bill's five years of post-graduate education in Nutrition Science and Biological Chemistry along with his years of clinical experience as a nutrition consultant
have given him great insight into the modern
human condition, the needless suffering of people, and a profound appreciation
for the body's miraculous capabilities to heal itself when properly supported by
In The News
World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
states; probiotics are
"live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host".
"In conclusion, probiotics act as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic diseases"
(from a paper presented by Broekaert and Walker of Harvard Medical School , Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children
Elderly people should take probiotic supplements, according to scientists.
Intestinal Gas: Belching, Bloating and Flatulence
We have all suffered from gas at one time or another, but some people suffer from gas most or all of the time.
To some people, gas is a feeling of fullness after eating (bloating). For others, it is abdominal cramps,
and still others, belching. However, fullness, cramps, and belching are commonly caused by problems other than gas,
for example, poor emptying of the stomach, intestinal obstruction, or abnormal function of the intestinal muscles.
In fact, the only clear sign of excessive gas is flatulence, with or without visible abdominal enlargement (distention).
Belching can even produce a gas problem because it can cause air to be sucked into the stomach where it accumulates.
Therefore, abdominal distention that occurs with a lot of belching is likely to be due to air swallowing.
Air swallowing without belching,to the point of discomfort,is rare.
People have excess gas because they have gas-producing bacteria that generate more gas than the bacteria of other people,
have more of the gas-producing bacteria than other people, or have the bacteria in their small intestines.
(When present in the small intestine, bacteria digest ingested carbohydrates before they can be digested and absorbed by
the small intestine.)
Flatulence, also known as farting, is the act of passing intestinal gas from the anus.
Gas in the gastrointestinal tract has only two sources. It is either swallowed air or it is produced by bacteria
that normally inhabit the intestines, primarily the colon. Swallowed air is rarely the cause of excessive flatulence.
The usual source is the production of excessive gas by intestinal bacteria. The bacteria produce the gas
(hydrogen and/or methane) when they digest foods, primarily sugars and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose),
that have not been digested during passage through the small intestine. Sugars that are commonly poorly digested
(maldigested) and malabsorbed are lactose, sorbitol, and fructose. Lactose is the sugar in milk.
The absence of the enzyme lactase in the lining of the intestines, which is a genetic trait, causes the maldigestion.
Lactase is important because it breaks apart the lactose so that it can be absorbed. Sorbitol is a commonly used sweetener
in low calorie foods. Fructose is a commonly used sweetener in all types of candies and drinks.
Starches are another common source of intestinal gas. Starches are polysaccharides that are produced by plants and are
composed of long chains of sugars. Common sources of different types of starch include wheat, oats, potatoes, corn,
and rice. Rice is the most easily digested starch and little undigested rice starch reaches the colon and the
colonic bacteria. Accordingly, the consumption of rice produces little gas. In contrast, the starches in wheat, oats,
potatoes, and, to a lesser extent, corn, all reach the colon and the bacteria in substantial amounts. These starches,
therefore, result in the production of appreciable amounts of gas.
The starch in whole grains produces more gas than the starch in refined (purified) grains. Thus, more gas is formed
after eating foods made with whole wheat flour than with refined wheat flour. This difference in gas production probably
occurs because the fiber present in the whole grain flour slows the digestion of starch as it travels through the small
intestine. Much of this fiber is removed during the processing of whole grains into refined flour. Finally, certain fruits
and vegetables, for example, cabbage, also contain poorly digested starches that reach the colon and result in the formation
Most vegetables and fruits contain cellulose, another type of polysaccharide that is not digested at all as it passes
through the small intestine. However, unlike sugars and other starches, cellulose is used only very slowly by colonic
bacteria. Therefore, the production of gas after the consumption of fruits and vegetables usually is not great unless the
fruits and vegetables also contain sugars or polysaccharides other than cellulose.
Small amounts of air are continuously being swallowed and bacteria are constantly producing gas. Contractions of the
intestinal muscles normally propel the gas through the intestines and cause the gas to be expelled. Flatulence
(passing intestinal gas) prevents gas from accumulating in the intestines. However, there are two other ways in which gas
can escape the intestine. First, it can be absorbed across the lining of the intestine into the blood. The gas then
travels in the blood and ultimately is excreted in the breath. Second, gas can be removed and used by certain types of
bacteria within the intestine. In fact, most of the gas that is formed by bacteria in the intestines is removed by
other bacteria in the intestines. (Thank goodness!)
The ability to belch is almost universal. Belching, also known as burping, is the act of expelling gas
from the stomach out through the mouth. The usual cause of belching is a distended (inflated) stomach
caused by swallowed air. The distention of the stomach causes abdominal discomfort, and the belching expels
the air and relieves the discomfort. The common reasons for swallowing large amounts of air (aerophagia)
are gulping food or drink too rapidly, anxiety, and carbonated beverages. People are often unaware that they
are swallowing air. "Burping" infants during bottle or breast feeding is important in order to expel air in the stomach
that has been swallowed with the formula or milk.
Excessive air in the stomach is not the only cause of belching. For some people, belching becomes a habit and does
not reflect the amount of air in their stomachs. For others, belching is a response to any type of abdominal
discomfort and not just to discomfort due to increased gas. Everyone knows that when they have mild abdominal
discomfort, belching often relieves the problem. This is because excessive air in the stomach is often the cause
of mild abdominal discomfort. As a result, people belch whenever mild abdominal discomfort is felt , whatever the cause.
Belching is not the simple act that many people think it is. Belching requires the coordination of several activities.
The larynx must be closed-off so that any liquid or food that might return with the air from the stomach won't get into
the lungs. This is accomplished by voluntarily raising the larynx as is done when swallowing. Raising the larynx also
relaxes the upper esophageal sphincter so that air can pass more easily from the esophagus into the throat.
The lower esophageal sphincter must open so that air can pass from the stomach into the esophagus.
While all this is occurring, the diaphragm descends just as it does when a breath is taken. This increases
abdominal pressure and decreases pressure in the chest. The changes in pressure promote the flow of air from the
stomach in the abdomen to the esophagus in the chest.
One unusual type of belching has been described in aerophagic individuals who swallow air.
It has been demonstrated that during some of their belches room air enters the esophagus and is immediately expelled,
giving rise to a belch. This in and out flow of air also is likely to be the explanation for the ability of many people
to belch at will, even when there is little or no air in the stomach.
If the problem causing the discomfort is not excessive air in the stomach, then belching does not provide relief.
When belching does not ease the discomfort, the belching should be taken as a sign that something may be wrong
within the abdomen and the cause of the discomfort should be sought. Belching by itself, however, does not help
the physician determine what may be wrong because belching can occur in virtually any abdominal disease or condition
that causes discomfort.
In discussing bloating, it is important to distinguish between bloating and distention (inflated stomach) . Bloating is the
subjective sensation (feeling) that the abdomen is larger than normal. Thus, bloating is a symptom akin to the
symptom of discomfort. In contrast, distention is the objective determination (physical finding) that the abdomen
is actually larger than normal. Distention can be determined by such observations as the inability to fit into clothes
or looking down at the stomach and noting that it is clearly larger than normal. In some instances, bloating may
represent a mild form of distention since the abdomen does not become physically (visibly or measurably) enlarged
until its volume increases by one quart. Nevertheless, bloating should never be assumed to be the same as distention.
There are three ways in which abdominal distention can arise. The causes are an increase in air, fluid, or tissue
within the abdomen. The diseases or conditions that cause an increase of any of these three factors are very different
from one another. Therefore, it is important to determine which of them is distending the abdomen.
There are two types of distention; continuous and intermittent. Continuous distention may be caused by the
enlargement of an intra-abdominal (within the abdomen) organ, an intra-abdominal tumor, a collection of
fluid around the intra-abdominal organs (ascites), or just plain obesity. Intermittent distention is usually
due to the occasional accumulation of gas and/or fluid within the stomach, small intestine, or colon.
Intermittent Abdominal Bloating
Excessive production of gas:
Excessive production of gas by bacteria is a common cause of intermittent abdominal bloating/distention.
Bacteria can produce too much gas in three ways. First, the amount of gas that bacteria produce varies from individual
to individual. In other words, some individuals may have bacteria that produce more gas, either because there are more
of the bacteria or because their particular bacteria are better at producing gas. Second, there may be poor digestion
and absorption of foods in the small intestine, allowing more undigested food to reach the bacteria in the colon.
The more undigested food the bacteria have, the more gas they produce. Examples of diseases of that involve poor digestion
and absorption include lactose intolerance, pancreatic insufficiency, and celiac disease. Third, bacterial overgrowth can
occur in the small intestine. Under normal conditions, the bacteria that produce gas are limited to the colon. In some medical
conditions, these bacteria spread into the small intestine. When this bacterial spread occurs, food reaches the bacteria
before it can be fully digested and absorbed by the small intestine. Therefore, the bacteria in the small intestine have a
lot of undigested food from which to form gas. This condition in which the gas-producing bacteria move into the small
intestine is called bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (bowel).
Excessive production of gas by bacteria is usually accompanied by more flatulence. Increased flatulence may not
always occur, however, since gas potentially can be eliminated in other ways such as; absorption into the body, utilization by
other bacteria, or possibly, by elimination at night without the knowledge of the gas-passer.
An obstruction (blockage) can occur virtually anywhere from the stomach to the rectum. When the blockage is temporary
or partial, it can cause intermittent abdominal bloating/distention. For example, scarring of the pylorus
(pyloric stenosis) can obstruct the opening from the stomach into the intestines, thereby blocking the complete
emptying of the stomach. After meals, the stomach is normally filled with food and swallowed air. Then, during the
next hour or two, the stomach secretes acid and fluid, which mix with the food and assist in digestion. As a result,
the stomach distends further. When the obstruction is incomplete, the food, air, and fluid eventually pass into the
intestines and the bloating/distention resolves.
An obstruction in the small bowel, which is most commonly due to adhesions from a previous surgery, is another cause
of intermittent abdominal distention. To make matters worse, the distention that is caused by the physical obstruction
stimulates both the stomach and intestines to secrete fluid, which adds to the distention. Finally, severe constipation or
fecal impaction (hardened stool in the rectum) can also obstruct the flow of the intestinal contents and result in distention.
In this case, however, the bloating/distention is usually constant and progressive and is relieved by bowel movements
or removal of the impacted stool.
A functional obstruction is not caused by an actual physical blockage, but rather by the poor functioning of the
muscles of the stomach or intestines that propel the intestinal contents. When these muscles are not working normally,
the intestinal contents will accumulate and distend the abdomen. Examples of functional obstruction include: gastroparesis
(paralysis of the stomach) of diabetes; chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, an unusual condition in which the
muscles of the small intestine do not work normally; and Hirschprung's disease, in which a small stretch of colonic muscle
does not contract normally due to missing nerves.
There is accumulating scientific evidence that some patients with abdominal bloating and distention due to gas may have
a functional abnormality of the intestinal muscles that prevents gas from being normally transported through
the intestine and expelled. Instead, their gas accumulates in the intestine. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome(IBS)
with bloating as an important symptom, the gas accumulates in the small intestine and not the colon.
The gas accumulates during the day and is greatest in the evening.
Fats in food have an effect on the intestine that mimics a functional obstruction. Dietary fat reaching the small intestine
causes transport of digesting food, gas, and liquid within the intestines to slow. This can promote the accumulation of
food, gas, and liquid and lead to bloating and/or distention.
Some people appear to be very sensitive (hypersensitive) to distention of their intestines, and they may feel
bloated even with normal amounts of digesting food, gas, and fluid in the intestine after a meal. The bloating may be
aggravated or even progress to distention if the meal contains substantial amounts of fat.
Evaluating Belching, Bloating and Flatulence
A patient's medical history is important because it directs the evaluation. If the bloating/distention is
continuous rather than intermittent, then enlargement of abdominal organs, abdominal fluid, tumors, or obesity are
probable causes. If the bloating/distention is associated with increased flatulence, then bacteria and excessive
gas production are likely factors. If a diet history reveals the consumption of large amounts of milk or dairy products
(lactose), sorbitol or fructose, then the maldigestion and malabsorption of these sugars may be the cause of the distention.
When individuals complain of flatulence, it may be useful for them to count the number of times they pass gas for
several days. This count can confirm the presence of excessive flatulence since the number of times gas is passed
correlates well with the total amount (volume) of passed gas. As you might imagine, it is not easy to measure the amount
of passed gas. It is normal to pass gas up to 20 times a day. (The average volume of gas passed
daily is estimated to be about ¾ of a quart.)
If an individual complains of excessive gas but passes gas fewer than 20 times per day,
the problem is likely to be something other than too much gas. For example, the problem may be the foul odor
of the gas (usually due to sulfur-containing foods), the lack of ability to control (hold back) the passing of gas,
or the soiling of underwear with small amounts of stool when passing gas. All of these problems, like excessive gas,
are socially embarrassing and may prompt individuals to consult a physician. These problems, however, are not due to
excessive gas production, and their treatment is different.
Simple Abdominal X-rays:
Simple x-rays of the abdomen, particularly if they are taken during an episode of bloating or distention,
can often confirm air as the cause of the distention since large amounts of air can be seen easily within
the stomach and intestine. Moreover, the cause of the problem may be suggested by noting where the gas has accumulated.
For example, if the air is in the stomach, emptying of the stomach is likely to be the problem.
Small Intestinal X-rays:
X-rays of the small intestine, in which barium is used to fill and outline the small intestine, are particularly
useful for determining if there is an obstruction of the small intestine.
Gastric Emptying Studies:
These studies measure the ability of the stomach to empty its contents. For gastric emptying studies,
a test meal that is labeled with a radioactive substance is eaten and a Geiger counter-like device is placed
over the abdomen to measure how rapidly the test meal empties from the stomach. A delay in emptying of the
radioactivity from the stomach can be caused by any condition that reduces emptying of the stomach
(e.g., pyloric stenosis, gastroparesis).
Ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI:
Imaging studies, including ultrasound examination, computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), are particularly useful in defining the cause of distention that is due to enlargement of the abdominal organs,
abdominal fluid, and tumor.
Maldigestion and malabsorption tests:
Two types of tests are used to diagnose maldigestion and malabsorption; general tests and specific tests.
The best general test is a 72 hour collection of stool that measures fat in the stool. If maldigestion
and/or malabsorption exist because of pancreatic insufficiency or diseases of the lining of the small intestine
(e.g., celiac disease), the amount of fat in the stool will increase.
Specific tests can be done for maldigestion of individual sugars that are commonly maldigested, including lactose
(the sugar in milk) and sorbitol (a sweetener in low calorie foods). The specific tests require ingestion of the
sugars followed by hydrogen/methane breath testing. (See below.) The sugar fructose, a commonly used sweetener,
like lactose and sorbitol, also may cause abdominal bloating/distention and flatulence. However, the problem
that can occur with fructose is different from that with lactose or sorbitol. Thus, as already discussed, lactose and
sorbitol may be poorly digested by the pancreas and small intestine. On the other hand, fructose may be digested normally
but may pass so rapidly through the small intestine that there is not enough time for digestion and absorption to take place.
Hydrogen/Methane Breath Tests:
The most convenient way to test for bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine is hydrogen/methane breath testing.
Normally, the gas produced by the bacteria of the colon is composed of hydrogen and/or methane. For hydrogen/methane
breath testing, a non-digestible sugar, lactulose, is consumed. At regular intervals following ingestion, samples of
breath are taken for analysis. When the lactulose reaches the colon, the bacteria form hydrogen and/or methane. Some
of the hydrogen or methane is absorbed into the blood and eliminated in the breath where it can be measured in the
samples of breath.
In normal individuals, there is one peak of hydrogen or methane when the lactulose enters the colon. In individuals
who have bacterial overgrowth, there are two peaks of hydrogen or methane. The first occurs when the lactulose passes
and is exposed to the bacteria in the small intestine. The second occurs when the lactulose enters the colon and is
exposed to the colonic bacteria. Hydrogen breath testing for overgrowth also may be done utilizing glucose as the test sugar.
Excessive Intestinal Gas Treatments
For the rare person who swallows air to the point of discomfort, techniques are recommended that are supposed to
reduce the amount of swallowed air. These methods include chewing particularly well and then swallowing with the
mouth closed and sucking liquids only through a straw. It is not known if any of these techniques actually reduce
The treatment of excessive intestinal gas depends on the cause.
As stated earlier, intestinal bacteria produce gas from food that is poorly digested and absorbed,
particularly carbohydrates and fiber.
The most common carbohydrates that are poorly digested are lactose
(the carbohydrate in milk), sucrose (the carbohydrate in corn syrup), and sorbitol (a low-calorie sweetener).
If there is maldigestion of specific sugars
a reasonable first approach to the problem of excessive gas is the elimination of each of these
carbohydrates (sugars) from the diet.
Avoidance of the offending carbohydrate should reduce the amount of flatulence and distention. Hydrogen/methane breath
tests also can determine accurately which carbohydrates are poorly digested. Another reasonable first approach is a
In the case of lactose in milk, an alternative treatment is available. Enzymes that are similar to intestinal
lactase can be added to the milk in order to
break down the lactose prior to its ingestion so that it can be absorbed normally. Some people find that yogurt,
in which the lactose has been broken down partially by bacteria, produces less gas than milk. There also are certain types
of vegetables and fruits that contain types of starches that are poorly digested by people but well digested by bacteria.
These include beans, lentils, cabbage, brussel sprouts, onions, carrots, bananas, apricots, and prunes.
Reducing the intake of these vegetables and fruits, as well as foods made from whole grains, should reduce gas and
flatulence. However, the list of gas-producing foods is rather long, and it may be difficult to eliminate them all
without severely restricting the diet. The use of a probiotic and enzyme dietary supplement , such as , Trafon OneAmeal™,
can also be helpful in reducing the gas caused by these offending foods.
When maldigestion is due to pancreatic insufficiency, then supplemental pancreatic enzymes , such as those found in
can be ingested with meals
to replace the missing enzymes. If maldigestion and/or malabsorption is caused by disease of the intestinal lining,
the specific disease must be identified, most commonly through a small bowel biopsy. Then, treatment can be targeted
for that condition. For example, if celiac disease is found on the biopsy, a gluten-free diet can be started.
An interesting form of treatment for excessive gas is the enzyme Alpha Glacatosidase , found in Trafon OneAmeal™.
This enzyme , when consumed with your meals , is able
to break down some of the difficult to digest polysaccharides , carbohydrates and fiber found in vegetables so
that they may be absorbed. This prevents
them from reaching the colonic bacteria and causing unnecessary production of gas . Alpha Glacatosidase has been shown
to be effective
in decreasing the incidence of intestinal gas.
Two other types of treatment have been promoted for the treatment of gas; simethicone and activated charcoal.
It is unclear if simethicone has an effect on gas in the stomach. However, it has no effect on the formation of gas
in the colon. Moreover, in the stomach, simethicone would be expected only to affect swallowed air, which, as
previously mentioned, is an uncommon cause of excessive intestinal gas. Nevertheless, some individuals are convinced
that simethicone helps them. Activated charcoal has been recommended for excess gas although there is no evidence
that it is effective.
If there is a physical obstruction to the emptying of the stomach or passage of food, liquid, and gas through
the small intestine, then surgical correction of the obstruction is required. If the obstruction is functional,
medications that promote activity of the muscles of the stomach and small intestine are given. Examples of these
medicines are erythromycin or metoclopramide (Reglan).
Bacterial overgrowth of the small bowel is usually treated with antibiotics. However, this treatment is frequently
only temporarily effective or not effective at all. When antibiotics provide only a temporary benefit, it may be
necessary to treat patients intermittently or even continuously with antibiotics. If antibiotics are not effective,
probiotics (e.g., lactobacillus) can be tried although their use in bacterial overgrowth has not been studied.
This condition may be difficult to treat.
Intestinal Gas At A Glance
The usual cause of belching is excessive gas in the stomach that comes from swallowed air. However, discomfort
in the abdomen for any reason may also cause belching. Therefore, belching does not always indicate the presence of
excessive gas in the stomach.
Bloating is the subjective feeling that the abdomen is enlarged but does not necessarily mean that the abdomen is,
in fact, enlarged.
Distention is the objective enlargement of the abdomen.
Continuous distention of the abdomen is usually caused by fluid, tumors, enlarged organs, or fat within the abdomen.
Intermittent distention of the abdomen may be caused by excessive formation of intestinal gas, as well as physical
or functional obstruction of the intestines.
Flatulence results from the production of gas by bacteria within the intestines when they digest sugars and polysaccharides.
Excessive production of gas and increased flatulence may occur because of:
the greater ability of some bacteria to produce gas
maldigestion or malabsorption of sugars and polysaccharides
bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine.
Belching, bloating/distention, and flatulence are evaluated with a medical history, simple abdominal x-rays,
small intestinal x-rays, gastric emptying studies, ultrasound examination, computerized tomography (CT),
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tests for maldigestion and malabsorption, and hydrogen breath testing.
The treatment of excessive intestinal gas depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes,
medications that reduce the amount of gas, medications that stimulate the muscles of the intestine, or antibiotics.
Did You Know?
You carry around three pounds of bacteria (both "good" and "bad" types) in your intestines every day of your life.?
There are about 400 different species of bacteria residing in your digestive tract?
That these bacterium number in the trillions?
That PROBIOTICS (good bacterium) are an INTREGAL part of your digestive system and are ESSENTIAL for good health?
That the ratio of good bacteria to bad in a HEALTHY gastrointestinal tract is 85 percent versus 15 percent, respectively?
People over 60 have about 1,000-fold LESS "friendly" bacteria in their guts compared with other adults
That your diet, prescription drugs (especially antibiotics), stress, and illnesses, can kill your essential good bacteria?
That enzymes are present in every cell of your body?
That enzymes are NECESSARY to your food digestion, energy production, tissue and organ repair, and toxic waste removal?
That due to a nutrient depleted diet , most Americans lack sufficient types and quanities of CRITICAL to health levels of both enzymes and probiotics?
That Trafon OneAmeal™ contains the hightest premium quality strains of HEALTH promoting probiotics and enzymes CRITICALLY required by your body?